Challenges in the implementation of success for all in four high-need urban schools

Janette Klingner, Elizabeth Cramer, Beth Harry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


We examined the challenges faced by 4 highneed urban schools when trying to implement Success for All (SFA). We wanted to understand SFA instruction as well as how SFA fit into the larger school context. Over a span of almost 2 years, we observed 45 SFA lessons (21 complete and 24 partial) across the 4 schools, taught by 30 teachers. We analyzed our data using a constantcomparison procedure and found that several challenges affected the fidelity with which the model was implemented. One of the greatest challenges was students stagnating and not passing to higher levels of the program, thus recycling through material they had already covered. We also found grouping and scheduling difficulties, and students of different reading levels and widely varying grade levels placed in the same class. We discuss the implications of these and other challenges.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)333-349
Number of pages17
JournalElementary School Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 1 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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