PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1 was pioneered by Claes Dohlman several decades ago. Since its inception, the device has undergone multiple revisions to address challenges associated with retroprosthetic membrane formation, retention, extrusion, stromal melt and endophthalmitis. Although visual outcomes and retention rates have improved, challenges, especially glaucoma, remain. RECENT FINDINGS: The Boston Keratoprosthesis Type I device has seen an increase in popularity because of the improvement in rates of retention and visual rehabilitation. Recent outcome studies have allowed clinicians to identify diagnoses and indications that can lead to more favorable results with the Boston Keratoprosthesis Type I device. SUMMARY: The Boston Keratoprosthesis Type I device continues to play a vital role in visual rehabilitation for eyes with very low chance of realistic allograft survival -- such as in eyes where corneal grafting is considered high-risk: eyes with corneal limbal stem cell failure, extensive deep corneal stromal neovascularization, and multiple allograft failures. This review article summarizes the perioperative and postoperative challenges, as well as other considerations associated with the device.
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