Cerebral Vascular Toxicity of Antiretroviral Therapy

Luc Bertrand, Martina Velichkovska, Michal Toborek

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


HIV infection is associated with comorbidities that are likely to be driven not only by HIV itself, but also by the toxicity of long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Indeed, increasing evidence demonstrates that the antiretroviral drugs used for HIV treatment have toxic effects resulting in various cellular and tissue pathologies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a modulated anatomophysiological interface which separates and controls substance exchange between the blood and the brain parenchyma; therefore, it is particularly exposed to ART-induced toxicity. Balancing the health risks and gains of ART has to be considered in order to maximize the positive effects of therapy. The current review discusses the cerebrovascular toxicity of ART, with the focus on mitochondrial dysfunction. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)74-89
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Cerebrovascular toxicity
  • Mitochondria
  • Neurotoxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology


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