Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare disease caused by dematiaceous (darkly pigmented) fungi. Cladophialophora species are highly neurotropic, and Cladophialophora bantiana (synonym=Xylohypha bantiana or C. trichoides) is the most commonly identified agent. Most reported cases of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis have occurred in immunocompetent patients; however, some case reports and experimental data have suggested that cellular immune deficiency is a risk factor. We report a case of pulmonary and cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a cardiac transplant patient due to a newly identified species of Cladophialophora. Optimal management includes both antifungal therapy and surgery.
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