Category fluency test: Normative data for English- and Spanish-speaking elderly

Amarilis Acevedo, David A. Loewenstein, Warren W. Barker, Dylan G. Harwood, Cheryl Luis, Marina Bravo, Deborah A. Hurwitz, Hilda Aguero, Lynda Greenfield, Ranjan Duara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

129 Scopus citations


Category fluency tasks are an important component of neuropsychological assessment, especially when evaluating for dementia syndromes. The growth in the number of Spanish-speaking elderly in the United States has increased the need for appropriate neuropsychological measures and normative data for this population. This study provides norms for English and Spanish speakers, over the age of 50, on 3 frequently used measures of category fluency: animals, vegetables, and fruits. In addition, it examines the impact of age, education, gender, language, and depressed mood on total fluency scores and on scores on each of these fluency measures. A sample of 702 cognitively intact elderly, 424 English speakers, and 278 Spanish speakers, participated in the study. Normative data are provided stratified by language, age, education, and gender. Results evidence that regardless of the primary language of the examinee, age, education, and gender are the strongest predictors of total category fluency scores, with gender being the best predictor of performance after adjusting for age and education. English and Spanish speakers obtained similar scores on animal and fruit fluency, but English speakers generated more vegetable exemplars than Spanish speakers. Results also indicate that different fluency measures are affected by various factors to different degrees.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)760-769
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2000


  • Category fluency test
  • Neuropsychological tests
  • Normative data
  • Spanish speakers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Psychology(all)


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