Caribbean corals in crisis: Record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005

C. Mark Eakin, Jessica A. Morgan, Scott F. Heron, Tyler B. Smith, Gang Liu, Lorenzo Alvarez-Filip, Bart Baca, Erich Bartels, Carolina Bastidas, Claude Bouchon, Marilyn Brandt, Andrew W. Bruckner, Lucy Bunkley-Williams, Andrew Cameron, Billy D. Causey, Mark Chiappone, Tyler R L Christensen, M. James C Crabbe, Owen Day, Elena de la GuardiaGuillermo Díaz-Pulido, Daniel DiResta, Diego L. Gil-Agudelo, David S. Gilliam, Robert N. Ginsburg, Shannon Gore, Héctor M. Guzmán, James C. Hendee, Edwin A. Hernández-Delgado, Ellen Husain, Christopher F G Jeffrey, Ross J. Jones, Eric Jordán-Dahlgren, Les S. Kaufman, David I. Kline, Philip A. Kramer, Judith C. Lang, Diego Lirman, Jennie Mallela, Carrie Manfrino, Jean Philippe Maréchal, Ken Marks, Jennifer Mihaly, W. Jeff Miller, Erich M. Mueller, Erinn M. Muller, Carlos A Orozco Toro, Hazel A. Oxenford, Daniel Ponce-Taylor, Norman Quinn, Kim B. Ritchie, Sebastián Rodríguez, Alberto Rodríguez Ramírez, Sandra Romano, Jameal F. Samhouri, Juan A. Sánchez, George P. Schmahl, Burton V. Shank, William J. Skirving, Sascha C C Steiner, Estrella Villamizar, Sheila M. Walsh, Cory Walter, Ernesto Weil, Ernest H. Williams, Kimberly Woody Roberson, Yusri Yusuf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

275 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. Methodology/Principal Findings: Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the iming and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80% of corals bleached and over 40% died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles. Conclusions/Significance: Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years, and regionally-averaged temperatures were the warmest in over 150 years. Comparison of satellite data against field surveys demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between accumulated heat stress (measured using NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Degree Heating Weeks) and bleaching intensity. This severe, widespread bleaching and mortality will undoubtedly have long-term consequences for reef ecosystems and suggests a troubled future for tropical marine ecosystems under a warming climate.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13969
JournalPLoS One
Volume5
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 3 2010

Fingerprint

Coral Reefs
Anthozoa
thermal stress
Bleaching
bleaching
Thermal stress
corals
Hot Temperature
Oceans and Seas
Temperature
Reefs
Ecosystem
Mortality
coral reefs
Climate
Documentation
Heating
Research Personnel
oceans
basins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Eakin, C. M., Morgan, J. A., Heron, S. F., Smith, T. B., Liu, G., Alvarez-Filip, L., ... Yusuf, Y. (2010). Caribbean corals in crisis: Record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005. PLoS One, 5(11), [e13969]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013969

Caribbean corals in crisis : Record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005. / Eakin, C. Mark; Morgan, Jessica A.; Heron, Scott F.; Smith, Tyler B.; Liu, Gang; Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Baca, Bart; Bartels, Erich; Bastidas, Carolina; Bouchon, Claude; Brandt, Marilyn; Bruckner, Andrew W.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Cameron, Andrew; Causey, Billy D.; Chiappone, Mark; Christensen, Tyler R L; Crabbe, M. James C; Day, Owen; de la Guardia, Elena; Díaz-Pulido, Guillermo; DiResta, Daniel; Gil-Agudelo, Diego L.; Gilliam, David S.; Ginsburg, Robert N.; Gore, Shannon; Guzmán, Héctor M.; Hendee, James C.; Hernández-Delgado, Edwin A.; Husain, Ellen; Jeffrey, Christopher F G; Jones, Ross J.; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Kaufman, Les S.; Kline, David I.; Kramer, Philip A.; Lang, Judith C.; Lirman, Diego; Mallela, Jennie; Manfrino, Carrie; Maréchal, Jean Philippe; Marks, Ken; Mihaly, Jennifer; Miller, W. Jeff; Mueller, Erich M.; Muller, Erinn M.; Toro, Carlos A Orozco; Oxenford, Hazel A.; Ponce-Taylor, Daniel; Quinn, Norman; Ritchie, Kim B.; Rodríguez, Sebastián; Ramírez, Alberto Rodríguez; Romano, Sandra; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Sánchez, Juan A.; Schmahl, George P.; Shank, Burton V.; Skirving, William J.; Steiner, Sascha C C; Villamizar, Estrella; Walsh, Sheila M.; Walter, Cory; Weil, Ernesto; Williams, Ernest H.; Roberson, Kimberly Woody; Yusuf, Yusri.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 5, No. 11, e13969, 03.12.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Eakin, CM, Morgan, JA, Heron, SF, Smith, TB, Liu, G, Alvarez-Filip, L, Baca, B, Bartels, E, Bastidas, C, Bouchon, C, Brandt, M, Bruckner, AW, Bunkley-Williams, L, Cameron, A, Causey, BD, Chiappone, M, Christensen, TRL, Crabbe, MJC, Day, O, de la Guardia, E, Díaz-Pulido, G, DiResta, D, Gil-Agudelo, DL, Gilliam, DS, Ginsburg, RN, Gore, S, Guzmán, HM, Hendee, JC, Hernández-Delgado, EA, Husain, E, Jeffrey, CFG, Jones, RJ, Jordán-Dahlgren, E, Kaufman, LS, Kline, DI, Kramer, PA, Lang, JC, Lirman, D, Mallela, J, Manfrino, C, Maréchal, JP, Marks, K, Mihaly, J, Miller, WJ, Mueller, EM, Muller, EM, Toro, CAO, Oxenford, HA, Ponce-Taylor, D, Quinn, N, Ritchie, KB, Rodríguez, S, Ramírez, AR, Romano, S, Samhouri, JF, Sánchez, JA, Schmahl, GP, Shank, BV, Skirving, WJ, Steiner, SCC, Villamizar, E, Walsh, SM, Walter, C, Weil, E, Williams, EH, Roberson, KW & Yusuf, Y 2010, 'Caribbean corals in crisis: Record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005', PLoS One, vol. 5, no. 11, e13969. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013969
Eakin CM, Morgan JA, Heron SF, Smith TB, Liu G, Alvarez-Filip L et al. Caribbean corals in crisis: Record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 3;5(11). e13969. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013969
Eakin, C. Mark ; Morgan, Jessica A. ; Heron, Scott F. ; Smith, Tyler B. ; Liu, Gang ; Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo ; Baca, Bart ; Bartels, Erich ; Bastidas, Carolina ; Bouchon, Claude ; Brandt, Marilyn ; Bruckner, Andrew W. ; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy ; Cameron, Andrew ; Causey, Billy D. ; Chiappone, Mark ; Christensen, Tyler R L ; Crabbe, M. James C ; Day, Owen ; de la Guardia, Elena ; Díaz-Pulido, Guillermo ; DiResta, Daniel ; Gil-Agudelo, Diego L. ; Gilliam, David S. ; Ginsburg, Robert N. ; Gore, Shannon ; Guzmán, Héctor M. ; Hendee, James C. ; Hernández-Delgado, Edwin A. ; Husain, Ellen ; Jeffrey, Christopher F G ; Jones, Ross J. ; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric ; Kaufman, Les S. ; Kline, David I. ; Kramer, Philip A. ; Lang, Judith C. ; Lirman, Diego ; Mallela, Jennie ; Manfrino, Carrie ; Maréchal, Jean Philippe ; Marks, Ken ; Mihaly, Jennifer ; Miller, W. Jeff ; Mueller, Erich M. ; Muller, Erinn M. ; Toro, Carlos A Orozco ; Oxenford, Hazel A. ; Ponce-Taylor, Daniel ; Quinn, Norman ; Ritchie, Kim B. ; Rodríguez, Sebastián ; Ramírez, Alberto Rodríguez ; Romano, Sandra ; Samhouri, Jameal F. ; Sánchez, Juan A. ; Schmahl, George P. ; Shank, Burton V. ; Skirving, William J. ; Steiner, Sascha C C ; Villamizar, Estrella ; Walsh, Sheila M. ; Walter, Cory ; Weil, Ernesto ; Williams, Ernest H. ; Roberson, Kimberly Woody ; Yusuf, Yusri. / Caribbean corals in crisis : Record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005. In: PLoS One. 2010 ; Vol. 5, No. 11.
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abstract = "Background: The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. Methodology/Principal Findings: Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the iming and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80{\%} of corals bleached and over 40{\%} died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles. Conclusions/Significance: Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years, and regionally-averaged temperatures were the warmest in over 150 years. Comparison of satellite data against field surveys demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between accumulated heat stress (measured using NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Degree Heating Weeks) and bleaching intensity. This severe, widespread bleaching and mortality will undoubtedly have long-term consequences for reef ecosystems and suggests a troubled future for tropical marine ecosystems under a warming climate.",
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T1 - Caribbean corals in crisis

T2 - Record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005

AU - Eakin, C. Mark

AU - Morgan, Jessica A.

AU - Heron, Scott F.

AU - Smith, Tyler B.

AU - Liu, Gang

AU - Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo

AU - Baca, Bart

AU - Bartels, Erich

AU - Bastidas, Carolina

AU - Bouchon, Claude

AU - Brandt, Marilyn

AU - Bruckner, Andrew W.

AU - Bunkley-Williams, Lucy

AU - Cameron, Andrew

AU - Causey, Billy D.

AU - Chiappone, Mark

AU - Christensen, Tyler R L

AU - Crabbe, M. James C

AU - Day, Owen

AU - de la Guardia, Elena

AU - Díaz-Pulido, Guillermo

AU - DiResta, Daniel

AU - Gil-Agudelo, Diego L.

AU - Gilliam, David S.

AU - Ginsburg, Robert N.

AU - Gore, Shannon

AU - Guzmán, Héctor M.

AU - Hendee, James C.

AU - Hernández-Delgado, Edwin A.

AU - Husain, Ellen

AU - Jeffrey, Christopher F G

AU - Jones, Ross J.

AU - Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric

AU - Kaufman, Les S.

AU - Kline, David I.

AU - Kramer, Philip A.

AU - Lang, Judith C.

AU - Lirman, Diego

AU - Mallela, Jennie

AU - Manfrino, Carrie

AU - Maréchal, Jean Philippe

AU - Marks, Ken

AU - Mihaly, Jennifer

AU - Miller, W. Jeff

AU - Mueller, Erich M.

AU - Muller, Erinn M.

AU - Toro, Carlos A Orozco

AU - Oxenford, Hazel A.

AU - Ponce-Taylor, Daniel

AU - Quinn, Norman

AU - Ritchie, Kim B.

AU - Rodríguez, Sebastián

AU - Ramírez, Alberto Rodríguez

AU - Romano, Sandra

AU - Samhouri, Jameal F.

AU - Sánchez, Juan A.

AU - Schmahl, George P.

AU - Shank, Burton V.

AU - Skirving, William J.

AU - Steiner, Sascha C C

AU - Villamizar, Estrella

AU - Walsh, Sheila M.

AU - Walter, Cory

AU - Weil, Ernesto

AU - Williams, Ernest H.

AU - Roberson, Kimberly Woody

AU - Yusuf, Yusri

PY - 2010/12/3

Y1 - 2010/12/3

N2 - Background: The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. Methodology/Principal Findings: Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the iming and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80% of corals bleached and over 40% died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles. Conclusions/Significance: Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years, and regionally-averaged temperatures were the warmest in over 150 years. Comparison of satellite data against field surveys demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between accumulated heat stress (measured using NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Degree Heating Weeks) and bleaching intensity. This severe, widespread bleaching and mortality will undoubtedly have long-term consequences for reef ecosystems and suggests a troubled future for tropical marine ecosystems under a warming climate.

AB - Background: The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. Methodology/Principal Findings: Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the iming and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80% of corals bleached and over 40% died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles. Conclusions/Significance: Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years, and regionally-averaged temperatures were the warmest in over 150 years. Comparison of satellite data against field surveys demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between accumulated heat stress (measured using NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Degree Heating Weeks) and bleaching intensity. This severe, widespread bleaching and mortality will undoubtedly have long-term consequences for reef ecosystems and suggests a troubled future for tropical marine ecosystems under a warming climate.

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