Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are frequently utilized for management of cardiac dysrhythmias in patients with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis. The survival benefit from use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with CKD or ESRD is not as clear as in the general population, particularly when used for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Transvenous CIED leads are associated with central vein stenosis resulting in significant adverse consequences for existing or future arteriovenous access. Venous hypertension from CIED lead-related central vein stenosis is a challenging clinical problem and may require repeated percutaneous interventions, replacement of the CIED, or creation of alternative arteriovenous access. Infections associated with transvenous CIED leads are more frequent and associated with worse outcomes in patients with renal disease. Epicardial CIED leads or other nontransvenous devices may reduce complications of both central venous stenosis and endovascular infection in these vulnerable patients. Consensus recommendations are offered for avoidance and management of complications arising from the use of CIEDs and arteriovenous hemodialysis access.
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