Cardiovascular manifestations of HIV vary according to disease stage, treatment regimen and geographical location. Common cardiac complications of HIV disease in patients off highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) include dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pericardial effusion, endocarditis, pulmonary hypertension and non-antiretroviral drug-related cardiotoxicity. However, with the introduction of HAART that has substantially modified the course of HIV disease by lengthening survival, additional cardiovascular consequences are a result of the metabolic syndrome with a propensity toward hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerotic heart disease. Because most of the world's HIV-infected patients have not been treated with HAART, the principal HIV-associated cardiovascular manifestations of patients off HAART are reviewed and new knowledge about the prevalence, pathogenesis and treatment in the HAART era are emphasised in this review. Exercise, a nonpharmacological approach to treating HAART-associated metabolic syndrome, is also discussed.
- Highly active antiretroviral theraphy (HAART)
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