Background Identifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) phenotypes among middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos can facilitate personalized care, better inform treatment decisions, and could lead to improved clinical outcomes. Methods We focused on middle-aged and older adults (ages 45–74 years at baseline) with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 5 from the HCHS/SOL (2008–2011) (unweighted n = 3,545). We used latent class analyses (LCA) to identify empirical and clinically meaningful OSA phenotypes. Sleep variables included AHI, percent sleep time SpO2<90%, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Women’s Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS) score, self-reported average sleep duration, restless legs symptoms, napping frequency, and self-reported sleep quality. We used survey logistic and Poisson regression to test the associations between our OSA phenotypes and prevalent and incident cardiovascular measures
(cardiovascular disease, heart failure, Stroke/TIA, hypertension, diabetes, and the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score). Results Average AHI, ESS, WHIIRS, and sleep duration were 18.1±19.5, 6.3±6.1, 7.4±6.6, and 7.8 ±1.7 hours, respectively, and 2.9% had zero percent time SpO2 <90%. We identified a three-class solution that clustered individuals into (1) insomnia OSA (44.3%), (2) asymptomatic mild OSA, (36.2%) and (3) symptomatic OSA (19.5%). Elevated WHIIRS and AHI scores primarily drove classification into groups one and three, respectively. In covariate adjusted models, OSA phenotypes were differentially associated with prevalence (baseline and seven years later) and incidence of cardiovascular measures. Conclusions OSA subtypes in diverse U.S. Hispanic/Latino adults have different cardiovascular complications. More targeted research, that takes these variations into account, could help ameliorate Hispanic/Latino sleep and cardiovascular health disparities.
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