The history and the physical examination remain the most important elements in cardiac risk stratification of patients prior to noncardiac surgery. Indications for further cardiac tests and interventions are usually the same as in the nonsurgical setting. No test should be performed unless the results will affect patient management. In many cases, noninvasive testing is being replaced by prophylactic medical therapy, a topic explored in the next article in this supplement.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine|
|Volume||73 Suppl 1|
|State||Published - Mar 2006|
ASJC Scopus subject areas