### Abstract

Intensive studies have been made on the carbonate system in seawater. The thermodynamic constants needed to examine the components of the carbonate system have been developed by several authors. The thermodynamic constants for the dissociation of carbonic acid in seawater have been determined on different pH scales. The two most popular pH scales are the total scale: [H
^{+}]
_{T} ≤ [H
^{+}]
_{F}{1 + [SO
_{4}
^{2}]
_{T}/K
_{HSO4}}) and the seawater scale: [H
^{+}]
_{SWS} ≤ [H
^{+}]
_{F} {1 +
_{HSO4}[SO
_{4}
^{2}]
_{T}/K
_{HSO4} +
_{HF}[F
^{-}]
_{T}/K
_{HF}}, where the brackets denote concentrations and the subscripts F and T are for free and total concentrations. The values of K
_{HSO4} and K
_{HF} are the dissociation constants for HSO
_{4}
^{-} and HF: As long as the same pH scale and constants for seawater are used, one can evaluate the components of the carbonate system in seawater. Unfortunately, not all the measured and fitted constants have been made for dilute seawater, and thus cannot be used in estuarine waters. In this paper, the measured constants from S ≤ 1 to 50 and t ≤ 0 to 50C have been determined on the total, seawater and free scale (pH
_{F} ≤ log[H
^{+}]
_{F}). These stoichiometric constants can now be used to examine the carbonate system in most estuarine waters.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 139-142 |

Number of pages | 4 |

Journal | Marine and Freshwater Research |

Volume | 61 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2010 |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- PH
- Scales
- Seawater

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Aquatic Science
- Oceanography
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Ecology

### Cite this

*Marine and Freshwater Research*,

*61*(2), 139-142. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF09254

**Carbonate constants for estuarine waters.** / Millero, Frank J.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Marine and Freshwater Research*, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 139-142. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF09254

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Carbonate constants for estuarine waters

AU - Millero, Frank J

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Intensive studies have been made on the carbonate system in seawater. The thermodynamic constants needed to examine the components of the carbonate system have been developed by several authors. The thermodynamic constants for the dissociation of carbonic acid in seawater have been determined on different pH scales. The two most popular pH scales are the total scale: [H +] T ≤ [H +] F{1 + [SO 4 2] T/K HSO4}) and the seawater scale: [H +] SWS ≤ [H +] F {1 + HSO4[SO 4 2] T/K HSO4 + HF[F -] T/K HF}, where the brackets denote concentrations and the subscripts F and T are for free and total concentrations. The values of K HSO4 and K HF are the dissociation constants for HSO 4 - and HF: As long as the same pH scale and constants for seawater are used, one can evaluate the components of the carbonate system in seawater. Unfortunately, not all the measured and fitted constants have been made for dilute seawater, and thus cannot be used in estuarine waters. In this paper, the measured constants from S ≤ 1 to 50 and t ≤ 0 to 50C have been determined on the total, seawater and free scale (pH F ≤ log[H +] F). These stoichiometric constants can now be used to examine the carbonate system in most estuarine waters.

AB - Intensive studies have been made on the carbonate system in seawater. The thermodynamic constants needed to examine the components of the carbonate system have been developed by several authors. The thermodynamic constants for the dissociation of carbonic acid in seawater have been determined on different pH scales. The two most popular pH scales are the total scale: [H +] T ≤ [H +] F{1 + [SO 4 2] T/K HSO4}) and the seawater scale: [H +] SWS ≤ [H +] F {1 + HSO4[SO 4 2] T/K HSO4 + HF[F -] T/K HF}, where the brackets denote concentrations and the subscripts F and T are for free and total concentrations. The values of K HSO4 and K HF are the dissociation constants for HSO 4 - and HF: As long as the same pH scale and constants for seawater are used, one can evaluate the components of the carbonate system in seawater. Unfortunately, not all the measured and fitted constants have been made for dilute seawater, and thus cannot be used in estuarine waters. In this paper, the measured constants from S ≤ 1 to 50 and t ≤ 0 to 50C have been determined on the total, seawater and free scale (pH F ≤ log[H +] F). These stoichiometric constants can now be used to examine the carbonate system in most estuarine waters.

KW - PH

KW - Scales

KW - Seawater

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77649324229&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77649324229&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1071/MF09254

DO - 10.1071/MF09254

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:77649324229

VL - 61

SP - 139

EP - 142

JO - Marine and Freshwater Research

JF - Marine and Freshwater Research

SN - 1323-1650

IS - 2

ER -