Calcium phosphate particle induction of metalloproteinase and mitogenesis: Effect of particle sizes

H. S. Cheung, T. R. Devine, W. Hubbard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals [hydroxyapatite (HA), octacalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate] are common in osteoarthritis knee effusions, and are often associated with low-grade synovial proliferation and inflammation. Calcium-containing crystals including HA, are known to have a number of biologic effects on culture cells such induction of mitogenesis, stimulation of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE3) production via the phospholipase A2/cyclo-oxygenase pathway, activation of phospholipase C and inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, induction of metalloproteinase synthesis and induction of proto-oncogenes (c-fos and c- myc). While endocytosis of HA particles is prerequisite of the mitogenic effect of calcium-containing crystals in fibroblasts, it is not known whether endocytosis is required for crystal-induced metalloproteinase synthesis. In the present series of experiments, we examine the effect of three different sizes (106, 46, and 17 μm mean diameters) well-characterized spherical HA particles on the induction of mitogenesis and metalloproteinase synthesis on human fibroblasts. We showed that endocytosis is required for HA particles to induce synthesis of metalloproteinases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-151
Number of pages7
JournalOsteoarthritis and Cartilage
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Endocytosis
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Metalloproteinase
  • Particle size

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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