Breathing exercises and inspiratory muscle training in heart failure

Lawrence P. Cahalin, Ross A. Arena

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Breathing exercises (BE) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) have been demonstrated to improve ventilation and ventilation-to-perfusion matching, and to improve exercise, functional performance, and many pathophysiologic manifestations of heart failure (HF). This article provides an extensive review of BE and IMT in patients with HF and identifies several key areas in need of further investigation, including the role of expiratory muscle training, IMT targeted at various locations of inspiration (early, mid, or late inspiration), and alteration of the ratio of inspiratory time to total breath time, all of which have substantial potential to improve many pathophysiologic manifestations of HF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-172
Number of pages24
JournalHeart failure clinics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2015


  • Exercise training
  • Functional capacity
  • Rehabilitation
  • Respiratory muscle weakness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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