Breathing exercises (BE) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) have been demonstrated to improve ventilation and ventilation-to-perfusion matching, and to improve exercise, functional performance, and many pathophysiologic manifestations of heart failure (HF). This article provides an extensive review of BE and IMT in patients with HF and identifies several key areas in need of further investigation, including the role of expiratory muscle training, IMT targeted at various locations of inspiration (early, mid, or late inspiration), and alteration of the ratio of inspiratory time to total breath time, all of which have substantial potential to improve many pathophysiologic manifestations of HF.
- Exercise training
- Functional capacity
- Respiratory muscle weakness
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine