Breast cancer risk in rats fed a diet high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy

Leena Hilakivi-Clarke, Ighovie Onojafe, Margarita Raygada, Elizabeth Cho, Robert Clarke, Marc E Lippman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Women who took the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy exhibit an elevated risk of breast cancer, whereas those who suffered from preeclampsia, which is associated with low circulating pregnancy estrogens, exhibit a reduced risk. Since a high-fat diet may increase circulating estrogen levels and possibly breast cancer risk, dietary factors during pregnancy could influence the risk of developing this disease. Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy increases carcinogen-induced mammary tumor incidence in rats. Methods: Pregnant or virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats that had been previously treated with 10 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) by oral garage when 55 days old were assigned to one of two isocaloric diets containing either 16% calories from fat (low-fat) or 43% calories from fat (high-fat) for the length of pregnancy or for the equivalent time of approximately 21 days. There were 20 pregnant and 10 nonpregnant DMBA- treated rats per group. Ten additional pregnant animals (not previously treated with DMBA) per group were used for hormone analysis. The fat source used was corn oil, which is high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, primarily linoleic acid. The animals were checked for tumors at least once per week by palpation. The tumor size, number, and latency to appearance after carcinogen exposure were recorded. The statistical significance of observed differences was tested by use of appropriate two-sided tests. Results: Female rats on different diets had virtually identical food intakes and weight gains during pregnancy. On gestation day 19, serum estradiol levels were approximately twofold higher in rats fed a high-fat diet than in rats fed a low-fat diet (P<.02). The serum insulin levels and insulin/glucose ratios (an index of insulin resistance) in rats fed the high-fat diet were approximately twofold lower than in rats fed the low-fat diet, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (P<.09 and P<.09, respectively). On week 18 following DMBA administration, the number of rats developing mammary tumors was significantly higher in the group exposed to a high-fat diet (40% of animals) than in the group exposed to a low-fat diet (10% of animals) during pregnancy (P<.05). Tumor multiplicity, latency to tumor appearance, and size of tumors upon first detection were similar among the dietary groups. No intergroup differences in the mammary tumor incidence were noted in virgin animals that were exposed to the high- or low-fat diets for an equivalent period of time. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that consumption of a diet high in fat (primarily in the form of n- 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) during pregnancy increases the risk of developing carcinogen-induced mammary tumors, possibly by increasing the pregnancy levels of circulating estrogens. Implications: If further studies find that the results from animal model studies are applicable to humans, some human breast cancers may be preventable by dietary manipulations during pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1821-1827
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute
Volume88
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 18 1996
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Breast Neoplasms
Diet
High Fat Diet
Pregnancy
9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
Fat-Restricted Diet
Fats
Carcinogens
Estrogens
Neoplasms
Animal Pregnancy
Insulin
Estradiol Congeners
Diethylstilbestrol
Corn Oil
Palpation
Incidence
Linoleic Acid
Pre-Eclampsia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Hilakivi-Clarke, L., Onojafe, I., Raygada, M., Cho, E., Clarke, R., & Lippman, M. E. (1996). Breast cancer risk in rats fed a diet high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 88(24), 1821-1827. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/88.24.1821

Breast cancer risk in rats fed a diet high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy. / Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Onojafe, Ighovie; Raygada, Margarita; Cho, Elizabeth; Clarke, Robert; Lippman, Marc E.

In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 88, No. 24, 18.12.1996, p. 1821-1827.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hilakivi-Clarke, L, Onojafe, I, Raygada, M, Cho, E, Clarke, R & Lippman, ME 1996, 'Breast cancer risk in rats fed a diet high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy', Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 88, no. 24, pp. 1821-1827. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/88.24.1821
Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena ; Onojafe, Ighovie ; Raygada, Margarita ; Cho, Elizabeth ; Clarke, Robert ; Lippman, Marc E. / Breast cancer risk in rats fed a diet high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy. In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1996 ; Vol. 88, No. 24. pp. 1821-1827.
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abstract = "Background: Women who took the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy exhibit an elevated risk of breast cancer, whereas those who suffered from preeclampsia, which is associated with low circulating pregnancy estrogens, exhibit a reduced risk. Since a high-fat diet may increase circulating estrogen levels and possibly breast cancer risk, dietary factors during pregnancy could influence the risk of developing this disease. Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy increases carcinogen-induced mammary tumor incidence in rats. Methods: Pregnant or virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats that had been previously treated with 10 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) by oral garage when 55 days old were assigned to one of two isocaloric diets containing either 16{\%} calories from fat (low-fat) or 43{\%} calories from fat (high-fat) for the length of pregnancy or for the equivalent time of approximately 21 days. There were 20 pregnant and 10 nonpregnant DMBA- treated rats per group. Ten additional pregnant animals (not previously treated with DMBA) per group were used for hormone analysis. The fat source used was corn oil, which is high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, primarily linoleic acid. The animals were checked for tumors at least once per week by palpation. The tumor size, number, and latency to appearance after carcinogen exposure were recorded. The statistical significance of observed differences was tested by use of appropriate two-sided tests. Results: Female rats on different diets had virtually identical food intakes and weight gains during pregnancy. On gestation day 19, serum estradiol levels were approximately twofold higher in rats fed a high-fat diet than in rats fed a low-fat diet (P<.02). The serum insulin levels and insulin/glucose ratios (an index of insulin resistance) in rats fed the high-fat diet were approximately twofold lower than in rats fed the low-fat diet, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (P<.09 and P<.09, respectively). On week 18 following DMBA administration, the number of rats developing mammary tumors was significantly higher in the group exposed to a high-fat diet (40{\%} of animals) than in the group exposed to a low-fat diet (10{\%} of animals) during pregnancy (P<.05). Tumor multiplicity, latency to tumor appearance, and size of tumors upon first detection were similar among the dietary groups. No intergroup differences in the mammary tumor incidence were noted in virgin animals that were exposed to the high- or low-fat diets for an equivalent period of time. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that consumption of a diet high in fat (primarily in the form of n- 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) during pregnancy increases the risk of developing carcinogen-induced mammary tumors, possibly by increasing the pregnancy levels of circulating estrogens. Implications: If further studies find that the results from animal model studies are applicable to humans, some human breast cancers may be preventable by dietary manipulations during pregnancy.",
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AU - Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

AU - Onojafe, Ighovie

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AU - Cho, Elizabeth

AU - Clarke, Robert

AU - Lippman, Marc E

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N2 - Background: Women who took the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy exhibit an elevated risk of breast cancer, whereas those who suffered from preeclampsia, which is associated with low circulating pregnancy estrogens, exhibit a reduced risk. Since a high-fat diet may increase circulating estrogen levels and possibly breast cancer risk, dietary factors during pregnancy could influence the risk of developing this disease. Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy increases carcinogen-induced mammary tumor incidence in rats. Methods: Pregnant or virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats that had been previously treated with 10 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) by oral garage when 55 days old were assigned to one of two isocaloric diets containing either 16% calories from fat (low-fat) or 43% calories from fat (high-fat) for the length of pregnancy or for the equivalent time of approximately 21 days. There were 20 pregnant and 10 nonpregnant DMBA- treated rats per group. Ten additional pregnant animals (not previously treated with DMBA) per group were used for hormone analysis. The fat source used was corn oil, which is high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, primarily linoleic acid. The animals were checked for tumors at least once per week by palpation. The tumor size, number, and latency to appearance after carcinogen exposure were recorded. The statistical significance of observed differences was tested by use of appropriate two-sided tests. Results: Female rats on different diets had virtually identical food intakes and weight gains during pregnancy. On gestation day 19, serum estradiol levels were approximately twofold higher in rats fed a high-fat diet than in rats fed a low-fat diet (P<.02). The serum insulin levels and insulin/glucose ratios (an index of insulin resistance) in rats fed the high-fat diet were approximately twofold lower than in rats fed the low-fat diet, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (P<.09 and P<.09, respectively). On week 18 following DMBA administration, the number of rats developing mammary tumors was significantly higher in the group exposed to a high-fat diet (40% of animals) than in the group exposed to a low-fat diet (10% of animals) during pregnancy (P<.05). Tumor multiplicity, latency to tumor appearance, and size of tumors upon first detection were similar among the dietary groups. No intergroup differences in the mammary tumor incidence were noted in virgin animals that were exposed to the high- or low-fat diets for an equivalent period of time. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that consumption of a diet high in fat (primarily in the form of n- 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) during pregnancy increases the risk of developing carcinogen-induced mammary tumors, possibly by increasing the pregnancy levels of circulating estrogens. Implications: If further studies find that the results from animal model studies are applicable to humans, some human breast cancers may be preventable by dietary manipulations during pregnancy.

AB - Background: Women who took the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy exhibit an elevated risk of breast cancer, whereas those who suffered from preeclampsia, which is associated with low circulating pregnancy estrogens, exhibit a reduced risk. Since a high-fat diet may increase circulating estrogen levels and possibly breast cancer risk, dietary factors during pregnancy could influence the risk of developing this disease. Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy increases carcinogen-induced mammary tumor incidence in rats. Methods: Pregnant or virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats that had been previously treated with 10 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) by oral garage when 55 days old were assigned to one of two isocaloric diets containing either 16% calories from fat (low-fat) or 43% calories from fat (high-fat) for the length of pregnancy or for the equivalent time of approximately 21 days. There were 20 pregnant and 10 nonpregnant DMBA- treated rats per group. Ten additional pregnant animals (not previously treated with DMBA) per group were used for hormone analysis. The fat source used was corn oil, which is high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, primarily linoleic acid. The animals were checked for tumors at least once per week by palpation. The tumor size, number, and latency to appearance after carcinogen exposure were recorded. The statistical significance of observed differences was tested by use of appropriate two-sided tests. Results: Female rats on different diets had virtually identical food intakes and weight gains during pregnancy. On gestation day 19, serum estradiol levels were approximately twofold higher in rats fed a high-fat diet than in rats fed a low-fat diet (P<.02). The serum insulin levels and insulin/glucose ratios (an index of insulin resistance) in rats fed the high-fat diet were approximately twofold lower than in rats fed the low-fat diet, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (P<.09 and P<.09, respectively). On week 18 following DMBA administration, the number of rats developing mammary tumors was significantly higher in the group exposed to a high-fat diet (40% of animals) than in the group exposed to a low-fat diet (10% of animals) during pregnancy (P<.05). Tumor multiplicity, latency to tumor appearance, and size of tumors upon first detection were similar among the dietary groups. No intergroup differences in the mammary tumor incidence were noted in virgin animals that were exposed to the high- or low-fat diets for an equivalent period of time. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that consumption of a diet high in fat (primarily in the form of n- 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) during pregnancy increases the risk of developing carcinogen-induced mammary tumors, possibly by increasing the pregnancy levels of circulating estrogens. Implications: If further studies find that the results from animal model studies are applicable to humans, some human breast cancers may be preventable by dietary manipulations during pregnancy.

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