Branhamella catarrhalis, formerly known as Neisseria catarrhalis, has structural similarities to Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but is generally considered to be nonpathogenic. We studied the clinical and laboratory data of four previously reported cases and six additional cases of B. catarrhalis keratitis. All patients had a predisposing ocular or systemic condition, or both. There were various clinical characteristics, but in most cases the infiltrate occurred in the central or paracentral cornea. A prompt response to treatment with a cephalosporin and aminoglycoside antibiotic was noted in all cases. Two patients had corneal perforations, which probably resulted from a delay in treatment. Gram-negative diplococci from corneal scrapings may not necessarily represent N. gonorrhoeae.
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