AIDS is an increasingly common diagnosis seen by neurologists and neurosurgeons alike. Although the more common brain lesions associated with AIDS are due to central nervous system lymphomas, toxoplasma encephalitis or progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, relatively recent clinical evidence has shown that AIDS-independent cerebral tumours can arise as well, albeit less commonly. Previous incidents have been reported with HIV and AIDS patients presenting with cerebral astrocytomas. To our knowledge, there has never been a report in the literature of a brainstem anaplastic glioma occurring in an AIDS or HIV patient. We report a 55-year-old patient with HIV and brainstem anaplastic glioma. Its presentation, diagnostic difficulty, scans, histology and subsequent treatment are discussed. We also review the relevant literature on gliomas in HIV/AIDS patients.
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