Twenty-nine patients with severe aplastic anemia were entered into a study of pre- and posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy for bone marrow transplantation. Four of twenty-five previously transfused recipients prepared with cyclophosphamide 200 mg/kg and total-lymphoid irradiation 3 Gy experienced graft failure, indicating that this regimen was inadequate to ensure sustained engraftment. Posttransplant treatment with cyclosporine and methotrexate resulted in an actuarial incidence for grade ≥ 2 graft-versus-host disease of 22 ± 16%. Actuarial survival was 78 ± 15%. These data indicate that more effective treatment is necessary to prevent graft failure, but since many patients can be successfully retransplanted, overall survival is comparable to other recent studies.
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