Autologous bone graft (autograft) is defined as bone graft material harvested from the host. It can either be taken locally from the surgical site or from a distant donor site. Bone graft substitutes are synthetic or allograft derived substrates created to enhance fusion. They can be subdivided into many different categories including allografts, ceramics, demineralized bone matrix, osteoinductive factors, autogenous platelet concentrate, mesenchymal stem cells, and gene therapy. The various options possess different biologic and physiologic attributes which, depending on the surgical need, make them the preferential choice as a fusion adjunct.
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