Bond coefficient, kb, of GFRP bars

Vanessa Benzecry, Alvaro Ruiz Emparanza, Francisco De Casoy Basalo, Antonio Nanni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Due to the increase in the number of manufacturers of GFRP bars, there is currently a variety of products in the marketplace with different physical and mechanical properties. These differences directly influence the bond coefficient, kb, a coefficient intended to relate the behavior of GFRP to that of steel bars for the computation of crack width and deflection of reinforced concrete elements. The 2015 version of the Guide for Design and Construction of Structural Concrete Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymers by ACI Committee 440 recommends a kb value of 1.4 for bars that have not been experimentally tested. To establish a specific kb, bars could be experimentally tested according to the 2012 edition of Canadian Standard S806-12. This test method is rather complex and has produced kb values varying from 0.69 to 1.61 according to published literature. The study presented in this paper determined kb according to the Canadian test method and a simpler proposed variation. This comparison is based on data derived from twenty-three beams tested to determine kb for two types of GFRP bars (Type-A and Type-B) and a conventional steel bar (Type-S). Bar Type-A is sand-coated with a helical wrap surface treatment, while Type-B is helically grooved. The investigation yielded similar results for both test methods and indicated some advantages with the use of the proposed test method. The kb of the Type-A presented a slightly better (lower) kb than the Type-B.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number123380
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
StatePublished - Jul 19 2021


  • Crack width
  • Design guides
  • GFRP bars
  • Reinforced concrete
  • Testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)


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