Blood pressure and pulse pressure effects on renal outcomes in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT)

Robert J. Anderson, Gideon D. Bahn, Nicholas V. Emanuele, Jennifer B. Marks, William C. Duckworth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE Blood pressure (BP) control for renal protection is essential for patients with type 2 diabetes. Our objective in this analysis of Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) data was to learn whether on-study systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) affected renal outcomes measured as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The VADT was a prospective, randomized study of 1,791 veterans with type 2 diabetes to determine whether intensive glucose control preventedmajor cardiovascular events. In this post hoc study, time-varying covariate survival analyses and hazard ratios (HR) were used to determine worsening of renal outcomes.

RESULTS Compared with SBP 105-129 mmHg, the risk of ACR worsening increased significantly for SBP 130-139 mmHg (HR 1.88 [95% CI 1.28-2.77]; P = 0.001) and for SBP ≥140 mmHg (2.51 [1.66-3.78]; P < 0.0001). Compared with a PP range of 40-49 mmHg, PP <40 was associated with significantly lowered risk of worsening ACR (0.36 [0.15-0.87]; P = 0.022) and PP ≥60 with significantly increased risk (2.38 [1.58-3.59]; P < 0.0001). Analyses of BP ranges associated with eGFR worsening showed significantly increased risk with rising baseline SBP and an interaction effect between SBP ≥140 mmHg and on-study A1C. These patients were 15% more likely than those with SBP <140 mmHg to experience eGFR worsening (1.15 [1.00-1.32]; P = 0.045) for each 1% (10.9 mmol/mol) A1C increase.

CONCLUSIONS SBP ≥130 mmHg and PP >60 mmHg were associated with worsening ACR. The results suggest that treatment of SBP to <130 mmHg may lessen ACR worsening. The interaction between SBP ≥140 mmHg and A1C suggests that the effect of glycemic control on reducing progression of renal disease may be greater in hypertensive patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2782-2788
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes care
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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