Polyomaviruses are increasingly recognized as important human pathogens. Among those, BK virus has been identified as the main cause of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN), a major cause of renal allograft failure. PVAN has also been well described in the setting of non-renal solid organ transplantation. The reports of PVAN after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) are surprisingly very few. Here, we describe a patient with treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome who received an unrelated donor HCT after ablative conditioning and in vivo T cell depletion with alemtuzumab. He developed a biopsy-proven BK nephropathy, which contributed to his renal failure. Leflunomide as well as cidofovir were given at different times, both in combination with intravenous immunoglobulin. Both treatments were effective in reducing the BK viral load, the cystitis symptoms and both stabilized but did not really improved the renal function. The patient was still dialysis-dependent when he died from Pseudomonas sepsis 13 months after HCT. A critical review of the literature and the treatment modalities for post-HCT PVAN are provided.
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