ABSTRACT: Deformity and tissue loss involving the craniomaxillofacial region occurs frequently as a result of trauma, oncologic resection, or a congenital malformation. In order to maximize the patient's quality of life, reconstruction of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton must seek to restore aesthetics as well as function. Advances in diagnostic technology, surgical technique, instrumentation, and innovative biomaterials used have transformed the way reconstructive surgeons approach their patients' needs. From the advent of alloplastic reconstruction, surgeons have sought the ideal material for use in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Substances such as metals, ceramics, glasses, and more recently resorbable polymers and bioactive materials have all been utilized.While autologous bone has remained widely-favored and the gold standard, synthetic alternatives remain a necessity when autologous reconstruction is not readily available. Today, alloplastic material, autografting via microvascular tissue transfer, hormone and growth factor-induced bone formation, and computer-aided design and manufacturing of biocompatible implants represent only a fraction of a wide range of options used in the reconstruction of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. We present a brief review of the materials used in the repair of deformities of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton as well as a look into the potential future direction of the field.
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