Biomarkers in stress related diseases/disorders: Diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic values

Kuldeep Dhama, Shyma K. Latheef, Maryam Dadar, Hari Abdul Samad, Ashok Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Mohd Iqbal Yatoo, Prakash Bhatt, Sandip Chakraborty, Karam Pal Singh, Hafiz M.N. Iqbal, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Sunil Kumar Joshi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Various internal and external factors negatively affect the homeostatic equilibrium of organisms at the molecular to the whole-body level, inducing the so-called state of stress. Stress affects an organism’s welfare status and induces energy-consuming mechanisms to combat the subsequent ill effects; thus, the individual may be immunocompromised, making them vulnerable to pathogens. The information presented here has been extensively reviewed, compiled, and analyzed from authenticated published resources available on Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and other scientific databases. Stress levels can be monitored by the quantitative and qualitative measurement of biomarkers. Potential markers of stress include thermal stress markers, such as heat shock proteins (HSPs), innate immune markers, such as Acute Phase Proteins (APPs), oxidative stress markers, and chemical secretions in the saliva and urine. In addition, stress biomarkers also play critical roles in the prognosis of stress-related diseases and disorders, and therapy guidance. Moreover, different components have been identified as potent mediators of cardiovascular, central nervous system, hepatic, and nephrological disorders, which can also be employed to evaluate these conditions precisely, but with stringent validation and specificity. Considerable scientific advances have been made in the detection, quantitation, and application of these biomarkers. The present review describes the current progress of identifying biomarkers, their prognostic, and therapeutic values.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number91
JournalFrontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Volume6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Acute phase proteins
  • Biomarkers
  • Diagnosis
  • Heat shock proteins
  • MiRNAs
  • Prognosis
  • Stress
  • Therapeutic values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)

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