Biological cost of tolerance to heavy metals in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae

P. O. Mireji, J. Keating, A. Hassanali, C. M. Mbogo, M. N. Muturi, J. I. Githure, John C Beier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The global rate of heavy metal pollution is rapidly increasing in various habitats. Anopheles malaria vector species (Diptera: Culicidae) appear to tolerate many aquatic habitats with metal pollutants, despite their normal proclivity for 'clean' water (i.e. low levels of organic matter). Investigations were conducted to establish whether there are biological costs for tolerance to heavy metals in Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto and to assess the potential impact of heavy metal pollution on mosquito ecology. Anopheles gambiae s.s. were selected for cadmium, copper or lead tolerance through chronic exposure of immature stages to solutions of the metals for three successive generations. Biological costs were assessed in the fourth generation by horizontal life table analysis. Tolerance in larvae to cadmium (as cadmium chloride, CdCl2), copper [as copper II nitrate hydrate, Cu(NO3)2 2.5 H2O] and lead [as lead II nitrate, Pb(NO3)2], monitored by changes in LC50 concentrations of the metals, changed from 6.07 μg/L, 12.42 μg/L and 493.32 μg/L to 4.45 μg/L, 25.02 μg/L and 516.69 μg/L, respectively, after three generations of exposure. The metal-selected strains had a significantly lower magnitude of egg viability, larval and pupal survivorship, adult emergence, fecundity and net reproductive rate than the control strain. The population doubling times were significantly longer and the instantaneous birth rates lower in most metal-selected strains relative to the control strain. Our results suggest that although An. gambiae s.s. displays the potential to develop tolerance to heavy metals, particularly copper, this may occur at a significant biological cost, which can adversely affect its ecological fitness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-107
Number of pages7
JournalMedical and Veterinary Entomology
Volume24
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010

Fingerprint

Anopheles gambiae
Heavy Metals
Culicidae
mosquito
heavy metals
tolerance
Metals
metals
heavy metal
Costs and Cost Analysis
metal
copper
Copper
cadmium
cost
Cadmium
Ecosystem
pollution
nitrate
Cadmium Chloride

Keywords

  • Anopheles gambiae
  • Biological cost
  • Cadmium
  • Copper
  • Heavy metals
  • Lead
  • tolerance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science
  • veterinary(all)
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Parasitology

Cite this

Biological cost of tolerance to heavy metals in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. / Mireji, P. O.; Keating, J.; Hassanali, A.; Mbogo, C. M.; Muturi, M. N.; Githure, J. I.; Beier, John C.

In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol. 24, No. 2, 01.06.2010, p. 101-107.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mireji, PO, Keating, J, Hassanali, A, Mbogo, CM, Muturi, MN, Githure, JI & Beier, JC 2010, 'Biological cost of tolerance to heavy metals in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae', Medical and Veterinary Entomology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 101-107. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2010.00863.x
Mireji, P. O. ; Keating, J. ; Hassanali, A. ; Mbogo, C. M. ; Muturi, M. N. ; Githure, J. I. ; Beier, John C. / Biological cost of tolerance to heavy metals in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2010 ; Vol. 24, No. 2. pp. 101-107.
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