Engineering principles are used in the exploitation of biocatalysts derived from cells. The purity of reagents, catalysts and maintenance of operation variables are extremely important for bioengineering systems. Any change in the purity of reagents or in operation variables usually leads to a dramatic decrease in productivity. Cellular systems, however, are able to work with relatively high impure conditions and increase their productivity in response to external signals. Thus the seemingly disordered 'bag of juice' or cytoplasm has more order and much higher order of integration than first appears. Learning the semantics of this paradoxical ability of order and integration would help bioengineers to understand and enhance productivity even using impure reagents.
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