Behavioral Inhibition and Developmental Risk: A Dual-Processing Perspective

Heather A. Henderson, Daniel S. Pine, Nathan A. Fox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early-appearing temperament characterized by strong reactions to novelty. BI shows a good deal of stability over childhood and significantly increases the risk for later diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Despite these general patterns, many children with high BI do not go on to develop clinical, or even subclinical, anxiety problems. Therefore, understanding the cognitive and neural bases of individual differences in developmental risk and resilience is of great importance. The present review is focused on the relation of BI to two types of information processing: automatic (novelty detection, attention biases to threat, and incentive processing) and controlled (attention shifting and inhibitory control). We propose three hypothetical models (Top-Down Model of Control; Risk Potentiation Model of Control; and Overgeneralized Control Model) linking these processes to variability in developmental outcomes for BI children. We argue that early BI is associated with an early bias to quickly and preferentially process information associated with motivationally salient cues. When this bias is strong and stable across development, the risk for SAD is increased. Later in development, children with a history of BI tend to display normative levels of performance on controlled attention tasks, but they demonstrate exaggerated neural responses in order to do so, which may further potentiate risk for anxiety-related problems. We conclude by discussing the reviewed studies with reference to the hypothetical models and make suggestions regarding future research and implications for treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-224
Number of pages18
JournalNeuropsychopharmacology
Volume40
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Fingerprint

Anxiety
Temperament
Delayed Diagnosis
Child Development
Inhibition (Psychology)
Automatic Data Processing
Individuality
Cues
Motivation
Social Phobia
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Behavioral Inhibition and Developmental Risk : A Dual-Processing Perspective. / Henderson, Heather A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

In: Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 40, No. 1, 01.01.2015, p. 207-224.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Henderson, Heather A. ; Pine, Daniel S. ; Fox, Nathan A. / Behavioral Inhibition and Developmental Risk : A Dual-Processing Perspective. In: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 ; Vol. 40, No. 1. pp. 207-224.
@article{4aa1bcaedaaf414e878c38f314c1776e,
title = "Behavioral Inhibition and Developmental Risk: A Dual-Processing Perspective",
abstract = "Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early-appearing temperament characterized by strong reactions to novelty. BI shows a good deal of stability over childhood and significantly increases the risk for later diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Despite these general patterns, many children with high BI do not go on to develop clinical, or even subclinical, anxiety problems. Therefore, understanding the cognitive and neural bases of individual differences in developmental risk and resilience is of great importance. The present review is focused on the relation of BI to two types of information processing: automatic (novelty detection, attention biases to threat, and incentive processing) and controlled (attention shifting and inhibitory control). We propose three hypothetical models (Top-Down Model of Control; Risk Potentiation Model of Control; and Overgeneralized Control Model) linking these processes to variability in developmental outcomes for BI children. We argue that early BI is associated with an early bias to quickly and preferentially process information associated with motivationally salient cues. When this bias is strong and stable across development, the risk for SAD is increased. Later in development, children with a history of BI tend to display normative levels of performance on controlled attention tasks, but they demonstrate exaggerated neural responses in order to do so, which may further potentiate risk for anxiety-related problems. We conclude by discussing the reviewed studies with reference to the hypothetical models and make suggestions regarding future research and implications for treatment.",
author = "Henderson, {Heather A.} and Pine, {Daniel S.} and Fox, {Nathan A.}",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/npp.2014.189",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "207--224",
journal = "Neuropsychopharmacology",
issn = "0893-133X",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Behavioral Inhibition and Developmental Risk

T2 - A Dual-Processing Perspective

AU - Henderson, Heather A.

AU - Pine, Daniel S.

AU - Fox, Nathan A.

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early-appearing temperament characterized by strong reactions to novelty. BI shows a good deal of stability over childhood and significantly increases the risk for later diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Despite these general patterns, many children with high BI do not go on to develop clinical, or even subclinical, anxiety problems. Therefore, understanding the cognitive and neural bases of individual differences in developmental risk and resilience is of great importance. The present review is focused on the relation of BI to two types of information processing: automatic (novelty detection, attention biases to threat, and incentive processing) and controlled (attention shifting and inhibitory control). We propose three hypothetical models (Top-Down Model of Control; Risk Potentiation Model of Control; and Overgeneralized Control Model) linking these processes to variability in developmental outcomes for BI children. We argue that early BI is associated with an early bias to quickly and preferentially process information associated with motivationally salient cues. When this bias is strong and stable across development, the risk for SAD is increased. Later in development, children with a history of BI tend to display normative levels of performance on controlled attention tasks, but they demonstrate exaggerated neural responses in order to do so, which may further potentiate risk for anxiety-related problems. We conclude by discussing the reviewed studies with reference to the hypothetical models and make suggestions regarding future research and implications for treatment.

AB - Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early-appearing temperament characterized by strong reactions to novelty. BI shows a good deal of stability over childhood and significantly increases the risk for later diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Despite these general patterns, many children with high BI do not go on to develop clinical, or even subclinical, anxiety problems. Therefore, understanding the cognitive and neural bases of individual differences in developmental risk and resilience is of great importance. The present review is focused on the relation of BI to two types of information processing: automatic (novelty detection, attention biases to threat, and incentive processing) and controlled (attention shifting and inhibitory control). We propose three hypothetical models (Top-Down Model of Control; Risk Potentiation Model of Control; and Overgeneralized Control Model) linking these processes to variability in developmental outcomes for BI children. We argue that early BI is associated with an early bias to quickly and preferentially process information associated with motivationally salient cues. When this bias is strong and stable across development, the risk for SAD is increased. Later in development, children with a history of BI tend to display normative levels of performance on controlled attention tasks, but they demonstrate exaggerated neural responses in order to do so, which may further potentiate risk for anxiety-related problems. We conclude by discussing the reviewed studies with reference to the hypothetical models and make suggestions regarding future research and implications for treatment.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84926669888&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84926669888&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/npp.2014.189

DO - 10.1038/npp.2014.189

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84926669888

VL - 40

SP - 207

EP - 224

JO - Neuropsychopharmacology

JF - Neuropsychopharmacology

SN - 0893-133X

IS - 1

ER -