Barriers to the Effective Management of Gynecomastia in Adolescents

Yingyot Arora, Rhiya Ridhi Mittal, Eva Adanna Williams, Seth Ray Thaller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the impacts of gynecomastia on adolescents, explore the surgical and psychological success of mastectomy, and evaluate the adequacy of insurance guidelines and coverage. METHODS: American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) surgical database from 2010 to 2014 was evaluated for current procedural terminology codes 19300 and 19303, representing mastectomies for gynecomastia and complete mastectomies respectively to compare surgical site complications. RESULTS: Of 1132 procedures for mastectomy for gynecomastia 1.5% of patients (n = 17) were associated with postoperative superficial surgical site complications. In the same timeframe, a total of 33,124 procedures for simple, complete mastectomy performed with a postoperative surgical complication rate of 2.2% (n = 721). Results of a Chi-squared goodness of fit χ (1, N = 34,997) = 2.10, P > 0.05 suggests no statistically significant difference between incidence of surgical site complications for a mastectomy for gynecomastia versus typical mastectomy. DISCUSSION: High surgical success rate, coupled with significant improvements in psychosocial functioning suggests that mastectomy is a highly effective intervention for adolescents with gynecomastia. However, due to vague and inadequate coverage and evaluation criteria surgery is often not performed. This paper offers a framework for developing a quantitative system by which to evaluate surgical candidates by adopting well-established guidelines currently in use for reduction mammoplasties and suggests further analysis into a cost/benefit analysis for coverage of the procedure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2381-2384
Number of pages4
JournalThe Journal of craniofacial surgery
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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