Balance in leader and follower perceptions of leader-member exchange: Relationships with performance and work attitudes

Claudia C. Cogliser, Chester A. Schriesheim, Terri A. Scandura, William L. Gardner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

111 Scopus citations


Using a sample of 285 matched pairs of employees and supervisors, we explore the extent to which congruence in leader and follower ratings of LMX quality is related to follower job performance and work attitudes. An original conceptual model is introduced that identifies four combinations of leader and follower LMX ratings: balanced/low LMX (low leader and follower LMX), balanced/high LMX (high leader and follower LMX), follower overestimation (low leader LMX/high follower LMX), and follower underestimation (high leader LMX/low follower LMX). As expected, balanced/low (high) LMX relationships were associated with relatively low (high) levels of follower job performance, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction, while the incongruent combinations generally yielded intermediate levels of follower outcomes. However, follower underestimation was also related to high levels of follower job performance, whereas follower overestimation was associated with high levels of follower satisfaction and organizational commitment. Implications of these findings for future LMX research are considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)452-465
Number of pages14
JournalLeadership Quarterly
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2009



  • Inter-rater agreement
  • Job performance
  • Job satisfaction
  • Leader-member exchange
  • Organizational commitment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Applied Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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