Influenza vaccination is less effective in elderly as compared to young individuals. Several studies have addressed the identification of immune biomarkers able to monitor or predict a protective humoral immune response to the vaccine. In this review, we summarize these data, with emphasis on the effects of aging on influenza vaccine-specific B cell responses in healthy individuals and patients with Type-2 Diabetes, HIV and cardiovascular diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy