Autologous transplantation (ASCT) is the standard of care for chemosensitive relapsed or primary refractory aggressive lymphoma, but little is known about its efficacy in the subset of patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). We undertook a retrospective review of patients with PTCL who underwent ASCT for relapsed or refractory disease after responding to second-line therapy, excluding patients with indolent histologies and those with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expressing anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The results of 24 patients with PTCL were compared with those of 86 consecutive patients with chemosensitive relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). With a median follow-up time of 6 years for surviving patients with PTCL and DLBCL, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates for PTCL and DLBCL patients were 24% and 34% respectively (P = 0·14); the corresponding overall survival (OS) rates were 33% and 39% respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to time to disease progression or survival after progression. The second-line age-adjusted international prognostic index was the only variable prognostic for PFS and OS in a multivariate analysis. The outcome of ASCT for patients with chemosensitive relapsed or primary refractory PTCL is similar to that for patients with DLBCL.
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