Augmented Reality Assisted Endoscopic Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: 2-Dimensional Operative Video

Aria M. Jamshidi, Vyacheslav Makler, Michael Y. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Augmented reality (AR) is a novel technology for spine navigation. This tracking camera-integrated head-mounted display (HMD) represents a novel stereotactic computer navigation modality that has demonstrated excellent precision and accuracy with spinal instrumentation.1 Standard computer-assisted spine navigation systems have two major shortcomings: attention shift and line-of-sight limitations. The HMD allows visualization of the surgical field and navigation data concurrently in the same field of view.2,3 However, the use of AR in spine surgery has been limited to use for instrumentation, not for endoscopy.  Fully endoscopic transforaminal interbody fusion under conscious sedation is an effective treatment option for degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis. Although this technique has a steep learning curve, the advantages are vast, including preservation of normal tissue, smaller incisional requirement, and reduced postoperative pain, all enabling rapid recovery after surgery. As with other endoscopic spine surgeries, this procedure has a steep learning curve and requires a robust understanding of foraminal anatomy in order to safely access the disc space.4,5 However, with the introduction of AR, the safety and precision of this procedure could be greatly improved upon.  In this video, we present a case of a 60-yr-old female who presented with a grade 1 spondylolisthesis and severe spinal stenosis and was treated with an L4-L5 interbody fusion. All instrumentation steps and localization for the endoscopic portion of the case were performed with assistance from the AR-HMD system. Informed written consent was obtained from the patient. The participant and any identifiable individuals consented to the publication of his/her image.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E563-E564
JournalOperative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 15 2021


  • Augmented reality
  • Endoscopic TLIF
  • MIS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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