We systematically analyze audio key finding to determine factors important to system design, and the selection and evaluation of solutions. First, we present a basic system, fuzzy analysis spiral array center of effect generator algorithm, with three key determination policies: nearest-neighbor (NN), relative distance(RD), and average distance (AD). AD achieved a 79% accuracy rate in an evaluation on 410 classical pieces, more than 8%higher RD and NN. We show why audio key finding sometimes outperforms symbolic key finding. We next propose three extensions to the basic key finding system - the modified spiral array (mSA),fundamental frequency identification (F0), and post-weight balancing (PWB) - to improve performance, with evaluations using Chopin's Preludes (Romantic repertoire was the most challenging).F0 provided the greatest improvement in the first 8 seconds, while mSA gave the best performance after 8 seconds. Case studies examine when all systems were correct, or all incorrect.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Signal Processing
- Information Systems
- Hardware and Architecture
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering