Atypical ulcers

Jennifer Tang, Robert Kirsner

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Atypical wounds are those that are not of pressure, venous, diabetic, or arterial etiology. They are encountered infrequently and less well studied. Wounds should be evaluated for atypical etiology if present on a location deviating from that of a common chronic wound, appears different than a common chronic wound, has unusual symptoms such as out of proportion pain or does not respond to conventional therapy. We present methods to diagnose and monitor wound progress. The focus is diagnostic measures such as hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical stains, immunofluorescence, microbiology culture, and polymerase chain reaction. The utilization of these measurement tools is evaluated for various types of atypical wounds. Wounds arising from inflammatory causes, infectious causes, vasculopathies, metabolic disorders, malignancies, external causes, drug-induced causes, and epidermolysis bullosa are explored. Wound measurement enables appropriate treatment in the care of atypical ulcers to enhance healing, decrease morbidity, and reduce the healthcare burden overall.



  • Calciphylaxis
  • Chemical burns
  • Drug induced ulcer
  • Epidermolysis bullosa
  • Factitial ulcer
  • Malignancy
  • Post radiation ulcer
  • Pyoderma gangrenosum
  • Spider bites
  • Ulcers of infectious etiology
  • Vasculitis
  • Vasculopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Tang, J., & Kirsner, R. (2013). Atypical ulcers. In Measurements in Wound Healing: Science and Practice (pp. 39-61). Springer-Verlag London Ltd.