An otherwise healthy 6-week-old girl who presented with an isolated left third cranial nerve palsy underwent MRI that revealed an enhancing mass intrinsic to the left third cranial nerve. Rapid enlargement of the lesion over 1 month led to subtotal neurosurgical resection of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), a rare, highly aggressive malignancy of infancy closely related histologically to medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Despite aggressive chemotherapy, the patient died within 6 months of presentation. This is the first report of an AT/RT presenting as an isolated third cranial nerve palsy caused by tumor arising from within the nerve.
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