Asymmetry of stress in granular media

J. P. Bardet, I. Vardoulakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

126 Scopus citations


Here, we show that the average stress in granular media, which is defined from virtual work, may be asymmetric in the absence of contact moments. We specify the circumstances and amplitude of stress asymmetry, and calculate the corresponding couple stress and first stress moment. We also show that the average stress is always symmetric, when it is alternately defined by using statics and no contact moment. The stress asymmetry, which results from external moments, has an amplitude that decreases with the volume size. The present analysis applies to two- and three-dimensional particles of arbitrary shapes. The asymmetric stress, couple stress and first stress moment are analytically calculated in a particular example with cylindrical and spherical particles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)353-367
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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