A nested case-cohort study was performed in participants of a clinical trial of first-line human immunodeficiency virus treatments to investigate plasma biomarkers of inflammation and microbial translocation for their association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Fify-one of 1452 participants with baseline CD4 count < 350 cells/μL developed IRIS. Plasma from 51 IRIS cases, including 6 stratified by preenrollment CD4 count ≤200 cells/μL, were analyzed and compared to 94 non-IRIS controls. At baseline, CXCL10, lipopolysaccharide, soluble CD14, 16S ribosomal DNA, and interferon-α2 were associated with greater risk of IRIS. Systemic inflammation through persistent monocyte activation and microbial translocation appear to be important in IRIS pathogenesis.
- Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
- Microbial translocation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Infectious Diseases