Associations of cytokines, sleep patterns, and neurocognitive function in youth with HIV infection

Samuel B. Foster, Ming Lu, Daniel G. Glaze, James M. Reuben, Lynnette L. Harris, Evan N. Cohen, Bang Ning Lee, Enxu Zhao, Mary E. Paul, Heidi Schwarzwald, Chivon McMullen-Jackson, Charla Clark, F. Daniel Armstrong, Pim Y. Brouwers, Tracie L. Miller, Andrew A. Colin, Gwendolyn B. Scott, Shahriar Shahzeidi, Elizabeth J. Willen, Deshratn AsthanaSteven E. Lipshultz, Bruce W. Thompson, William T. Shearer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Youth infected with HIV at birth often have sleep disturbances, neurocognitive deficits, and abnormal psychosocial function which are associated with and possibly resulted from elevated blood cytokine levels that may lead to a decreased quality of life. To identify molecular pathways that might be associated with these disorders, we evaluated 38 HIV-infected and 35 uninfected subjects over 18-months for intracellular cytokine levels, sleep patterns and duration of sleep, and neurodevelopmental abilities. HIV infection was significantly associated with alterations of intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12), sleep factors (total time asleep and daytime sleep patterns), and neurocognitive factors (parent and patient reported problems with socio-emotional, behavioral, and executive functions; working memory-mental fatigue; verbal memory; and sustained concentration and vigilance. By better defining the relationships between HIV infection, sleep disturbances, and poor psychosocial behavior and neurocognition, it may be possible to provide targeted pharmacologic and procedural interventions to improve these debilitating conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-23
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2012


  • Intracellular cytokines
  • Neurocognition
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Path analysis
  • Pediatric HIV infection
  • Sleep behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy


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