Associations of Age and Gender with Negative Symptom Factors and Functioning Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Schizophrenia

Anjana Muralidharan, Philip D Harvey, Christopher R. Bowie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Objective: Gender differences in neurocognition, social skills, and negative symptoms, favoring women, have been documented among young/middle-aged adults with schizophrenia. However, gender differences have rarely been examined among older adults with schizophrenia, when decreases in circulating estrogens may impact outcomes among women. Methods: Community-dwelling adults (N = 242, ages 40–85) with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder completed assessments of negative symptoms (expressive and experiential deficits), neurocognition, and social skills. Mann-Whitney U tests examined gender differences; a regression-based bootstrapped approach to moderation examined gender by age interactions. Results: Female participants had better neurocognition (U = 6,814.00, p = 0.011) and less severe experiential deficits (U = 4,130.50, p = 0.022). There was no gender difference in social skills (U = 5,920.50, p = 0.150). Older age was associated with greater expressive deficits among men but not women (b = -0.04; 95% confidence interval -0.0780, -0.0114; bootstrap p = 0.009). Conclusion: Gender differences among adults with schizophrenia may vary depending on age; gender differences in negative symptoms may vary by symptom subgroup.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018



  • age differences
  • gender differences
  • negative symptoms
  • older adults
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this