Associations between coping, affect, and social support among low-income African American smokers

Monica Webb Hooper, Elizabeth A. Baker, Marcia D. McNutt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Objective: Previous research has documented disparities in smoking cessation between African Americans and Caucasians. Many low-income African American smokers face a range of circumstances that may inhibit effective coping during quit attempts, yet previous research has not considered factors that influence coping in this population. This study examined (a) affect (positive and negative) and (b) perceived social support in association with coping strategies. Methods: The baseline assessment of African American smokers (N=168) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Brief COPE. A factor analysis of the Brief COPE resulted in two factors, adaptive and maladaptive strategies. Results: Participants were mostly single (64%), women (61%), with ≥. 12. years of education (68%), and low-income. They were middle aged (M=46.1, SD=8.7), smoked 21.8 (SD=13.3) cigarettes/day for 24.3 (SD=11) years, and were moderately nicotine dependent. Results demonstrated that adaptive coping was positively correlated with positive affect and social support. Maladaptive coping was positively correlated with negative affect, and inversely related to positive affect and social support. Multivariate analyses revealed that positive affect and social support were independently associated with adaptive coping strategies. In contrast, maladaptive coping was independently associated with negative affect, but not social support. Conclusions: Interventions that harness positive resources, such as social support and positive mood, may facilitate adaptive coping. Also, addressing negative affect among low-income African American smokers may be important to reduce maladaptive coping strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2736-2740
Number of pages5
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2013


  • African American smokers
  • Coping
  • Negative affect
  • Positive affect
  • Social support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Associations between coping, affect, and social support among low-income African American smokers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this