Association of urogenital infections with spermicides

T. M. Hooton, S. J. Klebanoff

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Spermicides containing nonoxynol-9, a nonionic detergent, are frequently used by sexually active persons for contraception and for prevention of sexually transmitted disases (STDs). Nonoxynol-9 has excellent in vitro activity against almost all of the important sexually transmitted pathogens. Use of nonoxynol-9-containing spermicides decreases women's risks of acquiring gonococcal and chlamydial infection. Protection against other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, remains less clear. There is concern that spermicides may have an irritant effect on vaginal epithelium, which could increase the risk of transmission of HIV. The risk of urinary tract infections may be increased with spermicide use. Until the role of spermicides in the prevention of STDs is further clarified, it seems prudent to recommend that condoms, perhaps in conjunction with spermicides, be used for optimal protection against infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-47
Number of pages8
JournalInfections in Medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - Dec 1 1993
Externally publishedYes


  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • infection, genital tract
  • infection, urinary tract
  • sexually transmitted disease (STD)
  • spermicide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Association of urogenital infections with spermicides'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this