Purpose: Increasing age, male gender, and metabolic syndrome are associated with kidney stone formation. As sex hormones change with age, gender, and metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that sex hormones may underlie the physiologic changes affecting stone formation. Methods: We analyzed the relationships between testosterone, estradiol, and history of kidney stones using data from 10,193 participants in the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database from 2013–2016. We performed logistic regression analysis to analyze the predictive value of low testosterone and low estradiol on the history of kidney stones in both males and females. Self-reported history of kidney stone diagnosis was the outcome. Results: After adjusting for risk factors known to be associated with nephrolithiasis such as age, race, BMI, and medical comorbidities including: gout, angina, coronary disease, stroke, asthma, hypertension, and diabetes, multiple regression analysis demonstrated that there is no independent association between sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and history of kidney stones in either males or females. Conclusions: There appears to be no association between sex hormones and history of kidney stones. Whether there is a more complex interaction of sex hormone levels and the shared association with factors such as metabolic syndrome requires additional investigation. Further studies matching menopausal status for women are necessary to further investigate the potential relationship between estrogen and kidney stones.
- Stone disease
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