Numerous clinical and epidemiological studies have investigated the correlation between cigarette smoking and disc degeneration; several investigators have cited possible confounding factors as the reason for the insignificant correlations. " Experimental studies investigating the effects of cigarette smoking on the intervertebral disc using both in vivo and in vitro models have found reduced nutritional supply, histological and morphological changes, and altered cellular activity and viability in the disc following exposure to cigarette smoke and/or its constituents. " Additional studies are necessary to better identify the pathological mechanisms of smoking-induced disc degeneration and spine pain and to better establish the correlation between these factors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine