Assessment of cerebral S100B levels by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy after lateral fluid-percussion injury in the rat

Andrea Kleindienst, Christos M. Tolias, Frank D. Corwin, Christian Müller, Anthony Marmarou, Panos Fatouros, M. Ross Bullock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Object. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), S100B protein is released by astrocytes. Furthermore, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum S100B levels have been correlated to outcome. Given that no data exist about the temporal profile of cerebral S100B levels following TBI and their correlation to serum levels, the authors examined whether proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy is capable of measuring S100B. Methods. Results of in vitro proton MR spectroscopy experiments (2.35-tesla magnet, 25 G/cm, point-resolved spatially localized spectroscopy) revealed an S100B-specific peak at 4.5 ppm and confirmed a positive correlation between different S100B concentrations (10 nM-1 μM) and the area under the curve (AUC) for the S100B peak (r = 0.991, p < 0.001). Thereafter, proton MR spectroscopy was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats (7 X 5 X 5-mm voxel in each hemisphere, TR 3000 msec, TE 30 msec, 256 acquisitions). Exogenously increased CSF S100B levels (∼ 200 ng/ml) through the intraventricular infusion of S100B increased the AUC of the S100B peak from 0.06 ± 0.02 to 0.44 ± 0.06 (p < 0.05), whereas serum S100B levels remained normal. Two hours after lateral fluidpercussion injury, serum S100B levels increased to 0.61 ± 0.09 ng/ml (p < 0.01) and rapidly returned to normal levels, whereas the AUC of the S100B peak increased to 0.19 ± 0.04 at 2 hours postinjury and 0.41 ± 0.07 (p < 0.05) on Day 5 postinjury. Conclusions. Proton MR spectroscopy proves a strong correlation between the AUC of the S100B peak and S100B concentrations. Following experimental TBI, serum S100B levels increased for only a very short period, whereas cerebral S100B levels were increased up to Day 5 postinjury. Given that experimental data indicate that S100B is actively released following TBI, proton MR spectroscopy may represent a new tool to identify increased cerebral S100B levels in patients after injury, thus allowing its biological function to be better understood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1115-1121
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2005


  • Prognosis
  • Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Rat
  • S100B protein
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)


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