Assessing the Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Impairments in Cognitive and Physical Performance in Older Adults Using a Dual Task Physical Performance Test

J. Lopez, A. Campa, J. E. Lewis, F. G. Huffman, J. P. Liuzzi, T. Li, A. H. Martinez, S. M. Ferris, A. Rasul, A. Farooqi, A. M. Lopez Medrano, S. E. Atlas, Eduard Tiozzo, Janet Konefal, Judi Woolger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of falls in older adults. Several studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and gait and cognitive impairments, which are two risk factors for falls in the elderly. There is lack of research about the role of vitamin D in cognitive function in the context of mobility.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status with the age-related changes in mobility through higher order cognitive function using a dual task physical performance test.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

SETTING: Community-dwelling older adult population located in Miami, Fl.

PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants over the age of 55 (n=97) who participated in the parent interventional study.

MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed assessments that included serum levels of vitamin D, surveys, and dual task physical performance tests. Spearman's correlations, independent t-tests, repeated measures ANOVAs and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/ml) and sufficiency (≥30 ng/ml) and dual task physical performance variables. The significance level was set at α=0.05.

RESULTS: There were no significant associations between vitamin D insufficiency and gait velocity during either task. Using Spearman correlations, slower single (P=0.011) and dual task counting rates (P=0.006) were significantly associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Independent t-tests showed dual and single task counting rates were significantly lower in the vitamin D insufficient group compared to the sufficient group (P=0.018 and P=0.028, respectively). The results for the ANOVAs indicated that velocities and counting rates were not significantly different by vitamin D status (Wilk's Lambda =0.999; F (1, 95) =.11, P=.740) (Wilk's Lambda =.999, F(1,95)=.13, P=.718). Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with dual task physical performance (defined as the difference in dual and single task) in gait velocity (OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.98; 1.02, P=0.772) and counting rate (OR=1.684, 95% CI: 0.15; 19.57, P=0.677), when controlling for confounders.

CONCLUSIONS: Since counting backward is a mental tracking task, which is a component of executive function, our results suggest a relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and executive dysfunction. Executive dysfunction has been previously associated with fall risks in the elderly, and it could be a possible mediator between vitamin D and falls. Our data suggest that cognition may play a significant role in vitamin D's influence on falls, while motor function may play a lesser role.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-36
Number of pages8
JournalThe journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Task Performance and Analysis
Vitamin D
Gait
Cognition
Vitamin D Deficiency
Analysis of Variance
Cognitive Dysfunction
Independent Living
Executive Function
Vitamins
Healthy Volunteers
Logistic Models

Keywords

  • dual task
  • executive function
  • older adult
  • physical performance
  • Vitamin D status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Assessing the Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Impairments in Cognitive and Physical Performance in Older Adults Using a Dual Task Physical Performance Test. / Lopez, J.; Campa, A.; Lewis, J. E.; Huffman, F. G.; Liuzzi, J. P.; Li, T.; Martinez, A. H.; Ferris, S. M.; Rasul, A.; Farooqi, A.; Lopez Medrano, A. M.; Atlas, S. E.; Tiozzo, Eduard; Konefal, Janet; Woolger, Judi.

In: The journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease, Vol. 4, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 29-36.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lopez, J, Campa, A, Lewis, JE, Huffman, FG, Liuzzi, JP, Li, T, Martinez, AH, Ferris, SM, Rasul, A, Farooqi, A, Lopez Medrano, AM, Atlas, SE, Tiozzo, E, Konefal, J & Woolger, J 2017, 'Assessing the Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Impairments in Cognitive and Physical Performance in Older Adults Using a Dual Task Physical Performance Test', The journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 29-36. https://doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2016.114
Lopez, J. ; Campa, A. ; Lewis, J. E. ; Huffman, F. G. ; Liuzzi, J. P. ; Li, T. ; Martinez, A. H. ; Ferris, S. M. ; Rasul, A. ; Farooqi, A. ; Lopez Medrano, A. M. ; Atlas, S. E. ; Tiozzo, Eduard ; Konefal, Janet ; Woolger, Judi. / Assessing the Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Impairments in Cognitive and Physical Performance in Older Adults Using a Dual Task Physical Performance Test. In: The journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease. 2017 ; Vol. 4, No. 1. pp. 29-36.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of falls in older adults. Several studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and gait and cognitive impairments, which are two risk factors for falls in the elderly. There is lack of research about the role of vitamin D in cognitive function in the context of mobility.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status with the age-related changes in mobility through higher order cognitive function using a dual task physical performance test.DESIGN: Cross-sectional.SETTING: Community-dwelling older adult population located in Miami, Fl.PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants over the age of 55 (n=97) who participated in the parent interventional study.MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed assessments that included serum levels of vitamin D, surveys, and dual task physical performance tests. Spearman's correlations, independent t-tests, repeated measures ANOVAs and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/ml) and sufficiency (≥30 ng/ml) and dual task physical performance variables. The significance level was set at α=0.05.RESULTS: There were no significant associations between vitamin D insufficiency and gait velocity during either task. Using Spearman correlations, slower single (P=0.011) and dual task counting rates (P=0.006) were significantly associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Independent t-tests showed dual and single task counting rates were significantly lower in the vitamin D insufficient group compared to the sufficient group (P=0.018 and P=0.028, respectively). The results for the ANOVAs indicated that velocities and counting rates were not significantly different by vitamin D status (Wilk's Lambda =0.999; F (1, 95) =.11, P=.740) (Wilk's Lambda =.999, F(1,95)=.13, P=.718). Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with dual task physical performance (defined as the difference in dual and single task) in gait velocity (OR=1.00, 95{\%} CI: 0.98; 1.02, P=0.772) and counting rate (OR=1.684, 95{\%} CI: 0.15; 19.57, P=0.677), when controlling for confounders.CONCLUSIONS: Since counting backward is a mental tracking task, which is a component of executive function, our results suggest a relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and executive dysfunction. Executive dysfunction has been previously associated with fall risks in the elderly, and it could be a possible mediator between vitamin D and falls. Our data suggest that cognition may play a significant role in vitamin D's influence on falls, while motor function may play a lesser role.",
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T1 - Assessing the Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Impairments in Cognitive and Physical Performance in Older Adults Using a Dual Task Physical Performance Test

AU - Lopez, J.

AU - Campa, A.

AU - Lewis, J. E.

AU - Huffman, F. G.

AU - Liuzzi, J. P.

AU - Li, T.

AU - Martinez, A. H.

AU - Ferris, S. M.

AU - Rasul, A.

AU - Farooqi, A.

AU - Lopez Medrano, A. M.

AU - Atlas, S. E.

AU - Tiozzo, Eduard

AU - Konefal, Janet

AU - Woolger, Judi

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of falls in older adults. Several studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and gait and cognitive impairments, which are two risk factors for falls in the elderly. There is lack of research about the role of vitamin D in cognitive function in the context of mobility.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status with the age-related changes in mobility through higher order cognitive function using a dual task physical performance test.DESIGN: Cross-sectional.SETTING: Community-dwelling older adult population located in Miami, Fl.PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants over the age of 55 (n=97) who participated in the parent interventional study.MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed assessments that included serum levels of vitamin D, surveys, and dual task physical performance tests. Spearman's correlations, independent t-tests, repeated measures ANOVAs and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/ml) and sufficiency (≥30 ng/ml) and dual task physical performance variables. The significance level was set at α=0.05.RESULTS: There were no significant associations between vitamin D insufficiency and gait velocity during either task. Using Spearman correlations, slower single (P=0.011) and dual task counting rates (P=0.006) were significantly associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Independent t-tests showed dual and single task counting rates were significantly lower in the vitamin D insufficient group compared to the sufficient group (P=0.018 and P=0.028, respectively). The results for the ANOVAs indicated that velocities and counting rates were not significantly different by vitamin D status (Wilk's Lambda =0.999; F (1, 95) =.11, P=.740) (Wilk's Lambda =.999, F(1,95)=.13, P=.718). Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with dual task physical performance (defined as the difference in dual and single task) in gait velocity (OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.98; 1.02, P=0.772) and counting rate (OR=1.684, 95% CI: 0.15; 19.57, P=0.677), when controlling for confounders.CONCLUSIONS: Since counting backward is a mental tracking task, which is a component of executive function, our results suggest a relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and executive dysfunction. Executive dysfunction has been previously associated with fall risks in the elderly, and it could be a possible mediator between vitamin D and falls. Our data suggest that cognition may play a significant role in vitamin D's influence on falls, while motor function may play a lesser role.

AB - BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of falls in older adults. Several studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and gait and cognitive impairments, which are two risk factors for falls in the elderly. There is lack of research about the role of vitamin D in cognitive function in the context of mobility.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status with the age-related changes in mobility through higher order cognitive function using a dual task physical performance test.DESIGN: Cross-sectional.SETTING: Community-dwelling older adult population located in Miami, Fl.PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants over the age of 55 (n=97) who participated in the parent interventional study.MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed assessments that included serum levels of vitamin D, surveys, and dual task physical performance tests. Spearman's correlations, independent t-tests, repeated measures ANOVAs and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/ml) and sufficiency (≥30 ng/ml) and dual task physical performance variables. The significance level was set at α=0.05.RESULTS: There were no significant associations between vitamin D insufficiency and gait velocity during either task. Using Spearman correlations, slower single (P=0.011) and dual task counting rates (P=0.006) were significantly associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Independent t-tests showed dual and single task counting rates were significantly lower in the vitamin D insufficient group compared to the sufficient group (P=0.018 and P=0.028, respectively). The results for the ANOVAs indicated that velocities and counting rates were not significantly different by vitamin D status (Wilk's Lambda =0.999; F (1, 95) =.11, P=.740) (Wilk's Lambda =.999, F(1,95)=.13, P=.718). Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with dual task physical performance (defined as the difference in dual and single task) in gait velocity (OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.98; 1.02, P=0.772) and counting rate (OR=1.684, 95% CI: 0.15; 19.57, P=0.677), when controlling for confounders.CONCLUSIONS: Since counting backward is a mental tracking task, which is a component of executive function, our results suggest a relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and executive dysfunction. Executive dysfunction has been previously associated with fall risks in the elderly, and it could be a possible mediator between vitamin D and falls. Our data suggest that cognition may play a significant role in vitamin D's influence on falls, while motor function may play a lesser role.

KW - dual task

KW - executive function

KW - older adult

KW - physical performance

KW - Vitamin D status

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