The value of global (e.g. altimetry, satellite sea-surface temperature, Argo) and regional (e.g. radars, gliders, instrumented mammals, airborne profiles and biogeochemical) observation-types for monitoring the mesoscale ocean circulation and biogeochemistry is demonstrated using a suite of global and regional prediction systems and remotely-sensed data. A range of techniques is used to demonstrate the value of different observation-types to regional systems and the benefit of high-resolution and adaptive sampling for monitoring the mesoscale circulation. The techniques include Observing System Experiments, Observing System Simulation Experiments, adjoint sensitivities, representer matrix spectrum, observation footprints and spectral analysis. It is shown that local errors in global and basin-scale systems can be significantly reduced when assimilating observations from regional observing systems.
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