Assessing the apparent imbalance between geochemical and biochemical indicators of meso- and bathypelagic biological activity

What the @$#! is wrong with present calculations of carbon budgets?

Adrian B. Burd, Dennis A Hansell, Deborah K. Steinberg, Thomas R. Anderson, Javier Arístegui, Federico Baltar, Steven R. Beaupré, Ken O. Buesseler, Frank DeHairs, George A. Jackson, David C. Kadko, Rolf Koppelmann, Richard S. Lampitt, Toshi Nagata, Thomas Reinthaler, Carol Robinson, Bruce H. Robison, Christian Tamburini, Tsuneo Tanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

149 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Metabolic activity in the water column below the euphotic zone is ultimately fuelled by the vertical flux of organic material from the surface. Over time, the deep ocean is presumably at steady state, with sources and sinks balanced. But recently compiled global budgets and intensive local field studies suggest that estimates of metabolic activity in the dark ocean exceed the influx of organic substrates. This imbalance indicates either the existence of unaccounted sources of organic carbon or that metabolic activity in the dark ocean is being over-estimated. Budgets of organic carbon flux and metabolic activity in the dark ocean have uncertainties associated with environmental variability, measurement capabilities, conversion parameters, and processes that are not well sampled. We present these issues and quantify associated uncertainties where possible, using a Monte Carlo analysis of a published data set to determine the probability that the imbalance can be explained purely by uncertainties in measurements and conversion factors. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the bacterial growth efficiencies and assumed cell carbon contents have the greatest effects on the magnitude of the carbon imbalance. Two poorly quantified sources, lateral advection of particles and a population of slowly settling particles, are discussed as providing a means of closing regional carbon budgets. Finally, we make recommendations concerning future research directions to reduce important uncertainties and allow a better determination of the magnitude and causes of the unbalanced carbon budgets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1557-1571
Number of pages15
JournalDeep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
Volume57
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2010

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carbon budget
ocean
organic carbon
Monte Carlo analysis
particle settling
carbon
euphotic zone
carbon flux
sensitivity analysis
advection
water column
substrate
indicator
calculation
biological activity
budget

Keywords

  • Bathypelagic
  • Carbon budget
  • Carbon flux
  • Mesopelagic
  • Metabolic activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography

Cite this

Assessing the apparent imbalance between geochemical and biochemical indicators of meso- and bathypelagic biological activity : What the @$#! is wrong with present calculations of carbon budgets? / Burd, Adrian B.; Hansell, Dennis A; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Arístegui, Javier; Baltar, Federico; Beaupré, Steven R.; Buesseler, Ken O.; DeHairs, Frank; Jackson, George A.; Kadko, David C.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Lampitt, Richard S.; Nagata, Toshi; Reinthaler, Thomas; Robinson, Carol; Robison, Bruce H.; Tamburini, Christian; Tanaka, Tsuneo.

In: Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 57, No. 16, 08.2010, p. 1557-1571.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Burd, AB, Hansell, DA, Steinberg, DK, Anderson, TR, Arístegui, J, Baltar, F, Beaupré, SR, Buesseler, KO, DeHairs, F, Jackson, GA, Kadko, DC, Koppelmann, R, Lampitt, RS, Nagata, T, Reinthaler, T, Robinson, C, Robison, BH, Tamburini, C & Tanaka, T 2010, 'Assessing the apparent imbalance between geochemical and biochemical indicators of meso- and bathypelagic biological activity: What the @$#! is wrong with present calculations of carbon budgets?', Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol. 57, no. 16, pp. 1557-1571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.02.022
Burd, Adrian B. ; Hansell, Dennis A ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Anderson, Thomas R. ; Arístegui, Javier ; Baltar, Federico ; Beaupré, Steven R. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; DeHairs, Frank ; Jackson, George A. ; Kadko, David C. ; Koppelmann, Rolf ; Lampitt, Richard S. ; Nagata, Toshi ; Reinthaler, Thomas ; Robinson, Carol ; Robison, Bruce H. ; Tamburini, Christian ; Tanaka, Tsuneo. / Assessing the apparent imbalance between geochemical and biochemical indicators of meso- and bathypelagic biological activity : What the @$#! is wrong with present calculations of carbon budgets?. In: Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2010 ; Vol. 57, No. 16. pp. 1557-1571.
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AU - Hansell, Dennis A

AU - Steinberg, Deborah K.

AU - Anderson, Thomas R.

AU - Arístegui, Javier

AU - Baltar, Federico

AU - Beaupré, Steven R.

AU - Buesseler, Ken O.

AU - DeHairs, Frank

AU - Jackson, George A.

AU - Kadko, David C.

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AB - Metabolic activity in the water column below the euphotic zone is ultimately fuelled by the vertical flux of organic material from the surface. Over time, the deep ocean is presumably at steady state, with sources and sinks balanced. But recently compiled global budgets and intensive local field studies suggest that estimates of metabolic activity in the dark ocean exceed the influx of organic substrates. This imbalance indicates either the existence of unaccounted sources of organic carbon or that metabolic activity in the dark ocean is being over-estimated. Budgets of organic carbon flux and metabolic activity in the dark ocean have uncertainties associated with environmental variability, measurement capabilities, conversion parameters, and processes that are not well sampled. We present these issues and quantify associated uncertainties where possible, using a Monte Carlo analysis of a published data set to determine the probability that the imbalance can be explained purely by uncertainties in measurements and conversion factors. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the bacterial growth efficiencies and assumed cell carbon contents have the greatest effects on the magnitude of the carbon imbalance. Two poorly quantified sources, lateral advection of particles and a population of slowly settling particles, are discussed as providing a means of closing regional carbon budgets. Finally, we make recommendations concerning future research directions to reduce important uncertainties and allow a better determination of the magnitude and causes of the unbalanced carbon budgets.

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