Assessing reliability and validity of the Arabic language version of the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) symptom items

Anne E. Norris, Karen J. Aroian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Arab immigrant women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of gender, higher probability of being exposed to war-related violence, traditional cultural values, and immigration stressors. A valid and reliable screen is needed to assess PTSD incidence in this population. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of an Arabic language version of the symptom items in Foa et al.'s [Foa, E.B., Cashman, L., Jaycox, L., and Perry, K. 1997. The validation of a self report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Psychological Assessment 9(4), 445-451]. Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in a sample of Arab immigrant women (n = 453). Reliability was supported by Cronbach's alpha values for the Arabic language version (0.93) and its subscales (0.77-0.91). Results of group comparisons supported validity: Women who had lived in a refugee camp or emigrated from Iraq - a country where exposure to war and torture is common - were exhibiting depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) score above 18), or reported moderately to severely impaired functioning had significantly higher mean PDS total and symptom subscale scores than women who had not had these experiences or were not exhibiting depressive symptoms. Scores on the PDS and its subscales were also positively correlated with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) depression and anxiety subscales and negatively correlated with the POMS vigor subscale (r = - .29 to- .39).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-334
Number of pages8
JournalPsychiatry Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 30 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Emigration and Immigration
  • Instrument construction
  • Post-trauma
  • Psychometrics
  • Stress disorders
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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