Applying the PEN-3 Cultural Model to Address HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Guatemala

Victoria Orrego Dunleavy, Elena Chudnovskaya, Jasmine Phillips, Soroya Julian McFarlane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Guatemala has an accelerating HIV rate, where prevalence is three times higher among indigenous than nonindigenous, comprising 21% of all cases. Vulnerability is exacerbated by high poverty, low literacy, and poor access to testing and treatment options. This study develops a community-engaged HIV prevention campaign plan for the Mayan town of Santiago Atitlán. The PEN-3 model of cultural sensitivity frames this formative research project. Assessment domains of the PEN-3 model (Cultural empowerment and Relationships & expectations) identify culturally relevant factors affecting HIV prevention behaviours. The Cultural identity domain is utilized to identify entry points enhancing cultural acceptance and efficacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Intercultural Communication Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2018


  • Community-Based Participatory Research
  • HIV prevention
  • Mayan health
  • PEN-3 model
  • cultural sensitivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Communication


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