Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor clinical outcome. The incidence of EAC has been rising rapidly in the past three decades. Here, we showed that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) is overexpressed in EAC cell lines, and patients' samples of dysplasia and EAC. Downregulation of APE1 or inhibition of its redox function significantly repressed invasion. Overexpression of a redox-defective mutant, C65A, abrogated the proinvasive phenotype of APE1. APE1 regulated invasion via upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14), which subsequently activated MMP-2, leading to degradation of the extracellular matrix in a redox-dependent manner. Downregulation of APE1 or inhibition of its redox function decreased the rate of endocytosis and recycling of MMP-14 protein. APE1 interacted with ARF6, a key regulator of MMP-14 recycling, which maintained ARF6 activity in an APE1-redox-dependent manner, promoting its ability to regulate MMP-14 recycling to the cell surface. In summary, these findings identify a novel redox-sensitive APE1-ARF6-MMP-14 signaling axis that mediates cellular invasion in esophageal carcinogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research