Rotigotine-loaded microspheres (RoMS) are sustained-release formulations with prolonged anti-Parkinson's effects. Given that pain is a non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, this study investigated the antinociceptive effects of RoMS and their synergistic effects with analgesics on inflammatory pain. A model of inflammatory pain was prepared by intraplantarly injecting male Sprague-Dawley rats with carrageenan. The antinociceptive effects of RoMS, acetaminophen, and tramadol, both alone and in combination, were evaluated using the hind paw withdrawal latency in the hot plate test and Randall–Selitto test. The rotigotine concentrations in serum and tissues were assayed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Isobolographic analysis was performed to evaluate the nature of the interactions of RoMS with acetaminophen or tramadol. The results showed that hind paw withdrawal latency to thermal and mechanical stimuli was significantly increased on day 3 and 7 after administered RoMS. Rotigotine could be detected in serum and tissues 3 and 7 days after an intramuscular injection of RoMS. However, the rotigotine concentration fell the detection limit of the assay on day 14 after administration. RoMS produced synergistic antinociceptive effects in the inflammatory pain model when RoMS is combined with acetaminophen or tramadol. These findings suggest that RoMS can relieve inflammatory pain in rats. Furthermore, the combination of RoMS with acetaminophen or tramadol produces synergistic antinociception, which may be clinically worthy because combination therapies may reduce the drug doses required for antinociception.
- Rotigotine-loaded microspheres
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